On Satellite Television Rebroadcast – Piracy and The Law in Nigeria

The growth in the Direct-to-home (DTH) satellite television industry globally is well documented. Nigeria is certainly one of the countries in which such growth is evident and there are at least four major competing satellite television services providers in the Nigerian market. In addition, there is a small but growing number of satellite television enthusiasts who explore the opportunities available for viewing satellite television transmissions without subscription. Generally, there tends to be widespread misconception among the wider populace that satellite television is automatically equivalent to subscription television in ignorance of the fact that there is quite a considerable amount of free-to-air (FTA) transmission available without subscription. It should also be mentioned, however, that some of the enthusiasts do stray beyond simple FTA television into realms bordering on illegality, depending on the circumstances, with the use of some satellite receivers with modified software to watch encrypted material without subscription.

The issue of legality concerning satellite television broadcast and reception in Nigeria is topical currently in light of litigation before the Nigerian courts involving some of the DTH operators in the market and various other parties, especially some cable television service providers. Typically, the DTH operator has paid top dollar for premium content – a prime example being English Premier League (EPL) football – and wishes to protect its revenue stream by avoiding or preventing its dilution as a result of the activities of those who seek to disseminate the same content independently of the DTH. This is more so especially where the DTH operator has paid for exclusive rights. The dissemination, independent of the DTH operator, is usually by some cable service operators who often will obtain the content by satellite and re-broadcast it via cable to their own customers for a fee. In this respect, the main legal issue is whether those distributing such content independently of the DTH operator have the legal right to do so. The on-going litigation in the Nigerian courts between Hi-Media (operators of HiTV) and CTL (a cable services provider) typifies the scenario painted here.

Evidently, where encrypted satellite signals are obtained from the facilities of a DTH operator with exclusive domestic rights and re-distributed for a fee domestically without the DTH operator’s authorisation or consent, the rebroadcast is most likely an unlawful violation of the intellectual property rights of the DTH operator. However, Nigerian law is not entirely clear on the question of the legality of the rebroadcast of satellite signals within Nigeria where the signals are broadcast from outside the country of reception, by an operator that does not have domestic broadcast rights and, especially, where the signals are transmitted FTA without encryption. This scenario is also unfolding in Nigeria with the recent complaints lodged with Nigerian authorities by some Middle East & North Africa (MENA) DTH operators, especially Orbit Showtime about the rebroadcast of their signals by some cable service operators in Nigeria. In fact, the question of re-broadcasting of FTA signals is a constant issue of controversy and legal uncertainty in other countries particularly in Europe. For example, there was a recent crack-down in Spain on ‘illegal’ broadcasters. However, the crack-down seems to have been focused on operators re-broadcasting encrypted content without authorisation whereas it seems that those operators who re-broadcast FTA signals have largely been able to continue their operations as long as they are legally compliant in other respects such as basic licensing requirements and tax responsibilities.

In respect of the situation in Nigeria, the issues turn ultimately on questions of interpretation and application of Nigerian common law and a number of Nigerian legislation including the Copyright Act as amended. It is evidently very likely that the courts will rule that the domestic rights holder of particular content (exclusive rights in the case of EPL football) is able to challenge and restrain any rebroadcast of its own signals without its content or authorisation. It is a different matter if transmission signal for that same content has been obtained from a different source. e.g. a foreign broadcaster of EPL football as opposed to the domestic rights holder. Nevertheless, in such a case the domestic rights holder with exclusive rights may be able to successfully rely on the exclusivity of its own rights irrespective of the source from which the re-broadcaster might have obtained the signal. Potentially, the foreign rights holder may also claim for the violation of its own intellectual property rights.

The least clear legal situation concerns the re-broadcasting in Nigeria of FTA content transmitted or originating from a foreign country. From a wider perspective, there have always been at least two views of this situation. Firstly, the view exists that as long as the domestic re-broadcaster has a suitable broadcasting license and is otherwise in compliance with other relevant law, the re-broadcasting of FTA content is acceptable. Some argue that this explains the activities of some operators in some European countries e.g. Spain, Switzerland etc, where the re-broadcasting of signals originating from another country, especially the United Kingdom, is a well known phenomenon. The second view is that the re-broadcasting of FTA content without the authorisation of the (foreign) origin at least should always be illegal if it is not already so. Evidently, the rebroadcast involves taking advantage of the intellectual property of the originator but other considerations are also taken into account such as that the originator might itself be geographically restricted in terms of its broadcasting rights and that advertisements may be targeted at a particular country.

It is thought that the ongoing litigation before the Nigeria courts does not directly touch on the question of the re-broadcasting in Nigeria of FTA signals originating abroad. It is hoped that the Nigerian courts will provide clarification on the matter at the earliest arising opportunity.

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What Makes A Complete Striker?

In a gathering of football enthusiast, discussing and debating over football issues; some relevant and some others irrelevant. A few about individual players and others about teams with great exploits, teams that have defiled all odds to achieve extra ordinary success, the debate got hotter, and the tempo was raised, then propped up this topic; «Who is the best striker in Europe»?

Silence there was, each sinking into himself. It was a topic that made me ponder, but there is another side to this controversy; what really makes a striker? What are the qualities of a striker? How do we distinguish strikers from strikers?

Pondering over the interesting topic, ideas sprung up; views of mine came alive. The fundamental question as stated above needed urgent answers to put the debate to rest. First, who is a striker? A striker is a front man in team football, whom the whole team look up to produce goals, that will bring victory, he’s that man who bangs the net with goals

Let’s review what really makes a striker?

Some of the qualities, which I can deduce of a competent striker, are: height, speed, skills, strength, wits, calculation and the ability to tear apart opposing defenses single-handedly and most important of all, good finishing.

The rave making strikers in Europe presently, do possess some, if not all, of the above-mentioned qualities of a striker. Possessing of all the above-mentioned qualities makes a striker formidable. The greatest strikers in the footballing history possess all the qualities; the likes of Delima Ronaldo, The great Pele, Roberto Baggio, Romario, etc. which made them famous and deadly during their peak years, in the days of old.

Wayne Rooney, Didier Drogba, Fernando Torres, Lionel Messi, Samuel Eto’o, Cristiano Ronaldo, Diego Milito, Gonzalo Higuain, and the likes, are all proven goal scorers, who will bury any chance they get and will punish any defensive line up.

Analyzing each of the a fore-mentioned players, will bring to the fore the fact that all these are formidable strikers, who score on a regular basis. England has always being blessed with intelligent and proven strikers at different points in time. There was a time it was Andy Cole, one of the best players that ever wore the red and white England jersey, the first player in the history of Premier League to net five goals in a single match, amazing isn’t it? Well his time is past now, but really he mesmerized fans of the then EPL with his exceptional skills and goal scoring prowess.

There was Alan shearer, what do I have to say about this exceptionally good striker? He equaled Andy Cole’s record of five goals in a single match; he scored goals from different angles of the pitch, from different match situations: set pieces, counter-attack, open play and from even unlikely and remote angle of the pitch, as a result of his forceful style of play, some section s of the fans were not friendly with him, same made him one of the most-feared during his time in the Premier League. Although he has not been successful as a manager, failing to save Newcastle UTD from the relegation troubles, which caused its fall.

The English Footballing world woke to the 2009/2010 season to experience something different, an experience of goal banging, an all-round action experience; The Wayne Rooney Experience. Wayne Rooney as a player has grown to be very matured and confident. Watching the Rooney of five seasons ago in comparison to this season’s, one would clearly notice the improvement in his style of play, his conduct on the pitch, team coordinating brilliance and the likes. All these improvements in Wayne Rooney have made him to be a very formidable and fearful striker in the world football. One of the talents which Rooney possess that endeared him to me and the football fans in general, is his ability to terrorize opposing defenses single-handedly with sheer brilliance. Rooney has scored 38 goals so far this season, and most of them have through his individual brilliance, although with the help of team mates, who have mastered his play in recent games.

Team work is another of his talent which he puts on display in each match, he with his powerful and brilliant, has been able to foster unity in the team in terms of field play, he distributes accurate passes, he doesn’t hold on to the ball meaninglessly, positions himself in the best possible position to be spotted for pass release which on a good day results to goal.

Away from England, and unto the European scene, there is this player, who some have wrongly compared to a great football legend, the player who single-handedly destroy opposing teams, not only with his goals, but also with his passes, dribbles, speed, strength and all the rest.

The player, who is the current World Player of the Year, the most dangerous player on the planet presently; Lionel Messi! Some regard him as the «merciless», some others say he’s the greatest player to walk the earth surface, but I strongly disagree to this notion. You run out of adjectives trying to describe him, no doubt he’s a good player, proven goal-scorer, intelligent destroyer of opposing teams and worst of all he causes night mare to defenders, especially in the Spanish La Liga and also the Champions League, the two competitions which he plays his best football.

The «merciless» truly shows no mercy to teams and players that stands on his way to victory. He has scored 40 goals this season; his finishing and goal build-up play clearly spells out his superiority in Europe. He is being criticized for not excelling in big games with high expectation from him; he silenced his critics against Arsenal, after his well taken four goals to send Arsenal crashing out of Europe’s elite club competition.

Resting the debate, I’ll say strikers should be rated with different stats, the inability of a striker to score plenty goals does not mean he’s not a good striker. Fernando Torres is a brilliant striker, but he has not been able to score lots of goals doesn’t mean he’s not a complete striker. A complete striker is one who scores goals, has the ability to turn the game around with individual skill, spaces himself in the right positions to be given the ball and buries it at the back of the net. A striker is a playmaker.

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How to Manage National Team in Football Manager FM 2010

Football Manager is a series of football management simulation PC games developed by Sports Interactive (SIGames) and published by Sega. The latest version is Football Manager 2010 (FM 2010).

I have managed various national teams in Football Manager, you can manage one club and one national team concurrently in Football Manager. This is essentially 2 teams management. When I’m playing with Manchester United, I am offered to manage Brazil & England team. When I play in Spanish league as Xerez, I was offered manager position for Italy, Spain, and French. I usually don’t apply for this job. If you are winning many league cups as well as UEFA Champions League, you will be offered any of this national manager position instantly by the FA. The position usually will open after major cup such as World Cup or European Cup every 2-4 years. Most managers will get sack after poor performance in this major cup or the manager will resign by himself.

Managing national team is easy. I usually use generic tactic such as 4-4-2 most of the time or 4-1-2-1-2 variation for defence if needed. One thing to keep in mind is to keep winning when you are managing the national team.

Managing the Brazil team is a challenge, you will need to win almost all the time. Any consecutive draw will force the FA to boot you from the team. I was fired when I drew by playing with Argentina, Bolivia and Peru. If you can stay away from Brazil national team. The FA is just too unreasonable I think.

If possible, try to manage the national team which you have the league selected such as If you are managing English League team, try to manage England. Usually there is more young talent in your league that you play with the exception of Brazil.

I usually don’t select the national team player, I just ask a suggestion from my assistant manager to select the team. This option usually is available from time to time. If not, select the best team by using the game filter such as rating etc.

4-4-2 tactic

I mainly used a 4-4-2 formation with both center back/ defender arrow down, wingers has upward arrow, and 1 fast striker downward arrow. The center back usually have man marking and rarely close down position. One of midfielder is played as defensive midfielder with closing down. Other your back will be out of position whenever the other team counter attack your team. The passing is set to short or mix, wide formation and quick tempo. Offside and counter attack is on.

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